Her first spanking

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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. School corporal punishment is currently legal in 19 states, and over , children in these states are subject to corporal punishment in schools each year.

Given that the use of school corporal punishment is heavily concentrated in Southern states, and that the federal government has not included corporal punishment in its recent initiatives about improving school discipline, public knowledge of this issue is limited. The aim of this policy report is to fill the gap in knowledge about school corporal punishment by describing the prevalence and geographic dispersion of corporal punishment in U. This policy report is the first-ever effort to describe the prevalence of and disparities in the use of school corporal punishment at the school and school-district levels.

We end the report by summarizing sources of concern about school corporal punishment, reviewing state policies related to school corporal punishment, and discussing the future of school corporal punishment in state and federal policy. In , the U. Supreme Court ruled in its Ingraham v. Wright decision that school corporal punishment is constitutional, leaving states to decide whether to allow it. Nineteen U. Some school districts specify the exact dimensions of the paddles to be used for discipline. Most corporal punishment involves elementary school students North Carolina Department of Public Instruction, , and given that elementary school children range in average height from 43 inches at age 5 to 55 inches at age 10 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, , a 2-ft-long paddle can be half as tall as the children being paddled.

In any other context, the act of an adult hitting another person with a board of this size or really, of any size would be considered assault with a weapon and would be punishable under criminal law Bitensky, Schoolchildren are disciplined with corporal punishment for a range of behaviors. Evidence from other states further indicates that not all misbehaviors that elicit corporal punishment are serious. This decline occurred in large part because 25 states banned corporal punishment from public schools between and Yet this pattern of state policy change stagnated in the 20 years since , during which time only 5 additional states passed bans on school corporal punishment, bringing the total of states with bans to 31 plus the District of Columbia see Table 1.

The states that continue to allow corporal punishment have a greater percentage of children in the general population, higher rates of child poverty and child mortality, lower college graduation rates, and lower per-pupil education expenditures than states that have banned school corporal punishment Gershoff et al. List of the states that have banned corporal punishment in public schools in chronological order. School corporal punishment has received scant attention from the federal government.

Department of Education and the U. Department of Justice issued a widely publicized t report, entitled Nondiscriminatory Administration of School Discipline , that summarized racial disparities in suspensions and expulsions; no data were presented on corporal punishment, and the only mention of corporal punishment was a brief remark that it has the potential to be used in a discriminatory fashion U.

Department of Education and U. Department of Justice, In an accompanying guiding principles document issued by the U. Department of Education , corporal punishment was not mentioned a single time. Department of Education specifically on disparities in school discipline by race, gender, and disability status in the — school year U. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights, a.

Nor was corporal punishment mentioned in the most recent annual report OCR submitted to the President and the Secretary of Education U. This lack of information about and attention to school corporal punishment is surprising given that OCR has regularly collected data about corporal punishment in public schools for over 30 years in service of its mission to enforce civil rights in public education.

While two studies to date have examined the prevalence and predictors of school corporal punishment at the state level using OCR national data from representative samples of schools Gershoff et al. We end the report by summarizing sources of concern about school corporal punishment and the future of public policies related to the practice, reviewing state policies related to school corporal punishment, and discussing the future of school corporal punishment in state and federal policy. We note at the outset that corporal punishment is also legal in private schools in 48 states; the only exceptions are Iowa and New Jersey Bitensky, Because OCR does not collect discipline data from private schools and because federal and state laws have more jurisdiction over public schools, this report focuses only on public schools.

The little that is known about corporal punishment in U. All schools and districts that receive funding from the U. Department of Education are required to comply with requests for OCR survey data under several federal regulations 34 C. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights, b. Data presented in this report are from the CRDC for the school year —, which was a universal survey of all 95, U. The data are not publicly available but are available upon request from OCR.

In our analyses aggregated at the state level, we report data for a total of 37, schools from 5, districts. To depict the geographic dispersion of corporal punishment use, prevalence, and disparities, we merged OCR data with school district and state boundaries using ArcGIS software version This software allowed us to map the use of corporal punishment aggregated to either the district or state level.

Even when corporal punishment is legally permitted in a state, school district superintendents and individual school principals within districts can decide whether to use corporal punishment as a form of discipline. Table 2 presents the percentage of schools in each state that reported using corporal punishment on at least one child; these rates are then mapped in Figure 1. States that legally permit school corporal punishment are largely clustered in the southeastern United States. As is clear from both the table and figure, the nexus of school corporal punishment is located in the contiguous states of Arkansas, Alabama, and Mississippi, with more than half of schools in each state using corporal punishment.

The percentage of schools using corporal punishment progressively decreases among the states that radiate out from this nexus. Legality of corporal punishment and percentage of public schools reporting any corporal punishment by state. Percentage of schools reporting corporal punishment, and percentage of children attending schools using corporal punishment, by state in the — school year.

Data source: U. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights b. In a given state, the percentage of schools that use corporal punishment tells us little about the proportion of students potentially affected by it. It could be the case that corporal punishment is isolated in districts with fewer students, with the result that few students are actually at risk of receiving corporal punishment.

To examine this issue, we calculated the proportion of all students in a state who attended a school that used corporal punishment; these values are also presented in Table 2. However, there is substantial between-state variation. In comparing the two columns in Table 2 , the percentage of schools using corporal punishment and the percentage of children attending schools using corporal punishment are roughly equal in most states. However, for Arkansas, Oklahoma, Texas, and Georgia, the proportion of schools using corporal punishment exceeds the proportion of students who attend those schools by more than two percentage points, indicating that, on average, schools using corporal punishment in these states serve fewer students than schools that do not use it.

Given the between-state differences in prevalence of school corporal punishment, it is important to examine the within-state variation to determine whether corporal punishment usage and prevalence is clustered in particular areas of these states. Figure 2 presents prevalence of corporal punishment at the district level.

Each district is coded according to the highest school-level rate of corporal punishment in that district, or the percentage of all enrolled students who were corporally punished at least once. Use of corporal punishment by school district maximum percentage of students corporally punished at a district school. These districts are geographically scattered around each state, indicating that frequent use of school corporal punishment in these states has largely been eliminated in these states.

Around half of all students in Alabama, Arkansas, and Mississippi attend schools that use corporal punishment. Alabama, Arkansas, and Mississippi are a different story, however: This suggests that corporal punishment is still frequently used in a sizable percentage of the districts in these three states. Figure 2 is yet another illustration that school districts generally appear to be phasing out corporal punishment— except those in Alabama, Arkansas, and Mississippi, where its use remains widespread. Table 3 presents the of children attending public schools in each state where corporal punishment is legal that were subjected to corporal punishment in the — school year, with the total coming to , students.

It is important to note that the OCR data track the of children, not the instances of discipline; multiple instances of corporal punishment of the same child are not represented in the data. Thus, this total is likely an underestimate of the of instances of corporal punishment in the United States that year. and percentage of students within each state that actually received corporal punishment in the — school year.

Corporal punishment is permitted in 19 states, but it is much more pervasive across schools in some states, particularly Alabama, Arkansas, and Mississippi, where half of all students attend schools that use corporal punishment. Mississippi has the highest proportion of children experiencing school corporal punishment, where 1 in every 14 children is subject to corporal punishment in a single school year.

The CRDC survey asked school administrators to report how many children received corporal punishment during the — school year by race or ethnicity, gender, and disability status. To examine disparities by race, we computed a ratio of the proportion of Black students who were corporally punished to the proportion of White students who were. We were not able to calculate ratios for other racial and ethnic groups because of insufficient subgroup sizes.

To ensure that we were only including schools that used corporal punishment as a regular form of school discipline, we considered that a school used corporal punishment if the administrator reported corporal punishment of 10 or more students in that school year. The disparity ratio for gender was calculated as the proportion of boys who were subject to corporal punishment divided by the proportion of girls who were, while the disparity ratio for disability status was calculated as the proportion of disabled students who were corporally punished over the proportion of nondisabled students who were.

Disparity ratios were not calculated for schools that lacked adequate representation at least 15 students in either of the groups being compared. There were a few schools for which a ratio could not be calculated because either the numerator or denominator was 0; in other words, despite having both groups represented at the school, only members of one group received corporal punishment. In those instances, we ased the top-coded disparity measure i.

Using these methods, we were able to calculate disparity measures by race for 1, schools from districts , by gender for 3, schools from 1, districts , and by disability status for 3, schools from 1, districts. Each ratio reflects the increased probability of in one group Black, male, or a student with a disability experiencing corporal punishment as compared to in the comparison group White, female, or a student without a disability.

Of those, 53 did not have a school with adequate representation of students with and without disabilities.

Her first spanking

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